Daneel Lynn 的科幻奇幻必讀書單:科幻史、理論評述、作家研究(作廢)

31.07.14 新增:
Jeff VanderMeer, Wonderbook: The Illustrated Guide to Create Imaginative Fiction  (2013) ◎◎◎◎○
This all-new definitive guide to writing imaginative fiction takes a completely novel approach and fully exploits the visual nature of fantasy through original drawings, maps, renderings, and exercises to create a spectacularly beautiful and inspiring object. Employing an accessible, example-rich approach, Wonderbook energizes and motivates while also providing practical, nuts-and-bolts information needed to improve as a writer. Aimed at aspiring and intermediate-level writers, Wonderbook includes helpful sidebars and essays from some of the biggest names in fantasy today, such as George R. R. Martin, Lev Grossman, Neil Gaiman, Michael Moorcock, Catherynne M. Valente, and Karen Joy Fowler, to name a few. (cited from amazon.com)

Brian W. Aldiss & David Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction (1986) ◎◎◎◎
A thorough revision and expansion of Aldiss's Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction (1973), which was the first attempt at a coherent critical literary history of the field. Unlike works by Gunn, del Rey, and Wollheim, which tend to view SF history as a prologue to the development of the commercial American genre market, Trillion Year Spree sets out to be a comprehensive survey of the evolution of a literary form, with a distinctly personal viewpoint. Some of Aldiss's arguments, such as the contention that SF is a "post-Gothic" genre descended largely from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, have gained wide currency and some controversy, while others, such as his comparative treatment of the British and American "New Wave" movements, have also generated debate. Generally, however, the account is balanced and evenhanded. Perhaps in response to complaints that his earlier history slighted more recent SF, Aldiss worked with David Wingrove to assure that extensive coverage increased currency; fully two fifths of the book is devoted to SF after 1960 and includes discussions of films, feminist SF, cyberpunk, mainstream writers such as Doris Lessing, and the growth of SF scholarship, as well as an impressive number of younger writers. Some more recent writers are treated in a kind of headlong rush, and some inaccuracies result, but most of the judgements have held up well, and the book remains the definitive single-volume history of the field. Sixteen pages of photos, detailed reference and explanatory endnotes, a critical bibliography, and a thorough index add to the book's value as a scholarly reference as well as the most graceful and witty account of the genre to date. (p. 529)

Neil Barron, Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction, 5th Edition (2004) ◎◎◎◎◎
An update of a book widely considered to be one of the bibles of scholarship on the genre. It offers an overview of the English-language science-fiction field for a wide audience, including casual readers, devoted fans, librarians, teachers, and scholars. The volume is divided into three parts: a history of science fiction; a critical examination of 1400 novels, single-author collections, and multiple-author anthologies; and a survey of the secondary literature such as film and illustration. Each annotation in the bibliography includes cross-references to similar works and a listing of relevant themes. The contributors include scholars, professors, and critics; their writing styles differ greatly, adding to the volume's appeal. The final chapter, Listings, consists of the best books chosen by the contributors, major awards, important series, young adult books, translations, and organizations. There are indexes for titles, authors, and themes. There have been many changes made since the fourth edition: young adult books have been integrated with the adult books in the annotated bibliography section, Web sites and author e-mail addresses have been added, and the comics section and poetry have been dropped. The third edition was the last to have an extensive listing of science fiction in 13 languages, so libraries that still have it may want to keep it even if they plan to update. This is a book that belongs in every public library. Those with a large science fiction readership might want to consider pairing it with Barron's What Fantastic Fiction Do I Read Next? (Gale, 1997), which is more of a reader's advisory than a collection-development tool. -- from Michele Capozzella, Chappaqua Public Library, NY (cited from amazon.com)

John Clute, Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia (1995) ◎◎◎◎○
Although this survey has a lot of factual information, it's not an encyclopedia, i.e., a series of alphabetical entries with cross-references. Six of the eight chapters are chronological: future visions explores futures as seen in past and contemporary works; historical context is arranged thematically; influential magazines provides a short (10-page) survey, from Argosy to mid-1990s English- and foreign-language magazines; major authors provides short profiles and bibliographies, with some discussion of thematic shifts; classic titles not only discusses many such works, but the jackets in the photos are often worn and thus more believable; and genre film provides both narrative history and decade-long filmographies. Graphic works briefly surveys the work of some classic illustrations, with the balance devoted to European, American, and Japanese comics. International television draws on American, British, European and Japanese examples. As in all DK books, the illustrations are well selected, and the layout is very inviting. Clute's text is well-informed and accessible to anyone and competes well with the illustrations. A one-page glossary and a five-page index enhance use and make this much more than a coffee table book. A colorful companion to the Clute-Nicholls encyclopedia, ...... (p. 510)

John Clute & John Grant, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997) ◎◎◎◎◎
This masterful follow-up to the 1993 Encyclopedia of Science Fiction is an essential purchase for anyone who's serious about fantasy. Those who are serious about horror will also find it an excellent reference. The works of prolific and confusing authors such as Michael Moorcock, as well as authors such as J. R. R. Tolkien who have many posthumously published fragments, are explained with admirable clarity. Especially fascinating are the numerous terms for motifs and themes, constituting what the editors call a map of the many "fuzzy sets" in the universe of fantasy fiction--terms such as "crosshatch," "polder," and "water margin." There are many entries on horror movies and the better-known horror writers (only writers who write no fantasy, such as Richard Laymon, are excluded). You'll also find carefully written definitions of horror, dark fantasy, supernatural fiction, gothic fiction, psychological thrillers, and weird fiction. ...... (from amazon.com)

John Clute & Peter Nicholls, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, 2nd Edition (1993) ◎◎◎◎◎
The 1979 edition (......) was the first true English-language encyclopedia, in spite of other books having used Encyclopedia in their titles. What made it particularly valuable was its reliance on original research and primary sources, thus correcting much spurious information contained in less carefully compiled works. This new edition retains the virtues of the old and adds many new ones, most notably currency (through 1992) and scope (......). In terms of text, it's the lengthiest single work ever devoted to SF. ...... In short, there is much more of everything, ...... (pp. 510-1)

Istvan Csicser-Ronay, Jr., The Seven Beauties of Science Fiction (2008) ◎◎◎◎
As the world undergoes daily transformations through the application of technoscience to every aspect of life, science fiction has become an essential mode of imagining the horizons of possibility. However much science fiction texts vary in artistic quality and intellectual sophistication, they share in a mass social energy and a desire to imagine a collective future for the human species and the world. At this moment, a strikingly high proportion of films, commercial art, popular music, video and computer games, and non-genre fiction have become what Csicsery-Ronay calls science fictional, stimulating science-fictional habits of mind. We no longer treat science fiction as merely a genre-engine producing formulaic effects, but as a mode of awareness, which frames experiences as if they were aspects of science fiction. The Seven Beauties of Science Fiction describes science fiction as a constellation of seven diverse cognitive attractions that are particularly formative of science-fictionality. These are the "seven beauties" of the title: fictive neology, fictive novums, future history, imaginary science, the science-fictional sublime, the science-fictional grotesque, and the Technologiade, or the epic of technsocience's development into a global regime. (cited from amazon.com)

Jonathan R. Eller & William F. Touponce, Ray Bradbury: The Life of Fiction (2004) ◎◎◎◎○
...... Eller and Touponce have written the lengthiest study to date (510 pp.) of its subject. Using carnival in the broadest sense as an organizing metaphor, they explore the evolution of his fiction (not limited to his SF) and how he moved from the marginal field of SF to the literary mainstream. The eight chronological chapters provide a detailed, carefully argued analysis of Bradbury's varied writings. A 78-page appendix, 1938-2003, lists original and reprint appearances of his books (100+) and short fiction (400+ short stories). Another appendix lists his many unpublished works, long and short. Notes, a selected bibliography, and an index complete this study, which is a valuable starting point for any serious student of Bradbury. ...... (p. 628)

James Gifford, Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion (2000) ◎◎◎◎○
James Gifford's reader's companion to Heinlein is a well-structured, well-made, easy-to-use, and genuinely valuable guide in the format of an annotated bibliography. Introductory material includes a listing of all published titles, followed by a division of the individual works into shorter lists, with separate chronological breakdowns of those works considered part of Heinlein's future history, short fictions, novels for adults, novels for young people, non-SF stories, nonfiction, and anthologies. There is also a chronology that includes personal events in Heinlein's life and details of publications by year. The centerpiece of the book is an alphabetically arranged, annotated listing of every work published by Heinlein. Full bibliographical information is provided at the top of each entry, and the opening paragraph of each sketches the plot. The next section considers each work in the context of Heinlein's writing in general. Various bits of diverse information are given in what is not seldom the most fascinating portion of each entry, a section entitled "Curiosities and Anomalies." A selected Heinlein bibliography and title and general indexes conclude the volume. No attempt is made to cover the voluminous critical literature on Heinlein. (p. 644)

James E. Gunn, Alternate Worlds: The Illustrated History of Science Fiction (1975) ◎◎◎◎○
A readable and concise popular history, lavishly illustrated with magazine covers (many in color) and photograph of authors and including lists of Hugo and Nebula awards through 1974, a short list of major themes and representative works, and a chronology. Like del Rey's The World of Science Fiction, the book reflects a kind of consensus view of the field held by many American writers of the postwar period, but Gunn is far more politic and balanced than del Rey. Nearly half the text recounts SF history prior to 1926, with individual chapters on Verne and Wells; later chapters focus on the pulps (with a predictable emphasis on Campbell's Astounding) and the 1950s SF boom. Coverage of post-1965 SF is slight. Gunn's avowed purpose is not a critical history such as that of Aldiss and Wingrove, relatively few texts are discussed in depth, and judgements tend to be bland and noncontroversial. Nevertheless, this is the closest thing the SF community of Gunn's generation has to an "official" history. (p. 557)

James E. Gunn & Matthew Candelaria (ed.), Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction (2005) ○○○○
Science fiction is a field of literature that has great interest and great controversy among its writers and critics. This book examines the roots, history, development, current status, and future directions of the field through articles contributed by well-respected science fiction writers, teachers, and critics. The articles "speculate" on what is science fiction, is science fiction serious literature, which writers are considered good science fiction writers, and where the genre of science fiction is headed with 21st-century writers. Contributors include Brian W. Aldiss, Kathryn Cramer, Samuel R. Delany , David G. Hartwell, Ursula K. Le Guin, Barry N. Malzberg, Darko Suvin, Michael Swanwick, and many other outstanding authors. Examining all genres and subgenres of science fiction writing, this book provides differing viewpoints on science fiction, making it a great basis for dynamic classroom discussions. (from the publisher)

David G. Hartwell, Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction, revised edition (1996) ◎◎◎◎
Hartwell is arguably the most influential SF book editor of the 1970s and 1980s, and his chatty general introduction to the field mixes a sophisticated insider's understanding with astute and academic judgements. Although occasionally self-indulgent, Hartwell's is one of the few guidebooks that does not get weighed down a mechanical recitation of SF history. Following three chapters on aspects of SF's appeal and readership, he explores common myths about the genre (escapism, predictions of the future) and devotes individual chapters to fandom, the New Wave, and academic criticism. The 1996 edition updates the volume to the 1990s, and includes reading lists, a bibliography, a glossary of fan language, suggestions for developing a course in SF, and essays on hard SF, commercial fantasy, and editing the science fiction novel. More academic treatments of similar material may be found in Stableford's Sociology of Science Fiction and Bacon-Smith's Science Fiction Culture, but Hartwell is more knowledgeable than either in his firsthand awareness of the American fan, writer, and publishing communities. (pp. 558-9)

N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman (1999) ◎◎◎◎
Of the various trends in postmodernist cultural studies, the one that became most closely associated with SF scholarship during the 1990s involved the intersection of information theory and cultural expression.  ......  Hayles develops this exploration more thoroughly -- and with a more thorough mastery of SF texts -- than most other scholars in this area through her notion of "posthumanism," the complex of technological, social, and information science trends that in her view precipitates a radical rethinking of the nature of what it means to be human.  ......  In How We Became Posthuman, she traces what she describes as the problem of "embodiment" through cybernetic theory and through key SF texts, ......  Though conceptually dense and sometimes weak on the contextualization of the fiction under discussion, this is one of the more provocative and influential of the postmodernist discussions of SF as an expression of cultural ancieties.  ...... (pp. 559-60)

Edward James, Science Fiction in the 20th Century (1994) ◎◎◎◎○
A clearly organized and written overview that displays the kind of broad-based international perspective we might expect from one of the leading British academic scholars of the field. James, winner of the 2004 Pilgrim Awrad, begins with an acute discussion of labels and categories, and moves on to two chapters of historical survey beginning in 1895 and taking us roughly through the end of the Campbell period in 1960. He makes the persuasive point that American and British SF diverged following the radically different experiences of the two nations in the First World War, and details what he calls the "victory" of American SF under Campbell. Using Clarke and Wyndham as examples, he shows how British SF of the fifties managed to respond to, and yet remain separate from, the American tradition. Before continuing his historical survey through the New Wave and the cyberpunks, James pauses to add two chapters on "Reading Science Fiction"--which addresses SF's relation with the mainstream, accusations of escapism, the sense of wonder, the satirical and romantic poles of SF, and reading strategies--and "The SF Community." Following a penultimate chapter on SF fandom and its fringe cults, James concludes with a discussion of the 1960s and after. He treats the rise of subgenres such as hard SF, fantasy, feminist SF, and of course cyberpunk. A final section on current trends notes the recent popularity of alternative histories and the recent spate of Mars novels. James is consistently even-tempered, and his coverage more balanced than that of Landon. (p. 562)

Edward James & Farah Mendlesohn (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction (2003) ◎◎◎◎○
A collection of 20 essays, many by leading scholars and writers in the field, intended as a near-comprehensive overview of SF scholarship and critical theory, mostly English-language, at the beginning of the century. The essays are divided into three sections: History (......); Critical Approaches (......); and Sub-Genres and Themes (......). The History section includes not only chronological chapters, but a chapter on film and TV and one on SF editors; the Critical Approaches section covers Marxism, feminism, postmodernism, and queer theory; and the Sub-Genre section includes SF iconography, life sciences, hard SF, space opera, alternate history, utopias and dystopias, politics, gender, race and ethnicity, and religion. Most of the essays are well conceived and substantial, for the most part avoiding catalogues of titles and showing little sign of being written to fulfill a preconceived template. While this inevitably leads to some gaps, it also permits a wealth of original and individual insights, as in Mendlesohn's introduction and the essays by Clute, MacLeod, and Butler. An essential collection, supplemented by a selective chronology and bibliography, and a foreword by James Gunn. (p. 563)

Edward James & Farah Mendlesohn (eds.),  The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature  (2012) ◎◎◎◎
Fantasy is a creation of the Enlightenment and the recognition that excitement and wonder can be found in imagining impossible things. From the ghost stories of the Gothic to the zombies and vampires of twenty-first-century popular literature, from Mrs Radcliffe to Ms Rowling, the fantastic has been popular with readers. Since Tolkien and his many imitators, however, it has become a major publishing phenomenon. In this volume, critics and authors of fantasy look at the history of fantasy since the Enlightenment, introduce readers to some of the different codes for the reading and understanding of fantasy and examine some of the many varieties and subgenres of fantasy; from magical realism at the more literary end of the genre, to paranormal romance at the more popular end. The book is edited by the same pair who edited The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction (cited from amazon.com)

Paul Kincaid, A Very British Genre: A Short History of British Fantasy and Science Fiction (1995) ○○○○
An idiosyncratic and partisan appraisal that traces science fiction and fantasy from its origins in Wells, Shelley and before, through scientific romance and cosy catastrophe to the new wave and up to new writers like Jeff Noon who have seen their first novels appear in the mid-1990s. Along the route this popular and well-known critic distinguishes threads that are typically British, and which mark out this country's fantastic literature as a viable, flourishing and fascinating branch of the genre in its own right. (from BBR Online)

Farah Mendlesohn, Rhetorics of Fantasy (2008) ◎◎◎◎
Transcending arguments over the definition of fantasy literature, Rhetorics of Fantasy introduces a provocative new system of classification for the genre. Utilizing nearly two hundred examples of modern fantasy, author Farah Mendlesohn uses this system to explore how fiction writers construct their fantastic worlds. Mendlesohn posits four categories of fantasy--portal-quest, immersive, intrusion, and liminal--that arise out of the relationship of the protagonist to the fantasy world. Using these sets, Mendlesohn argues that the author's stylistic decisions are then shaped by the inescapably political demands of the category in which they choose to write. Each chapter covers at least twenty books in detail, ranging from nineteenth-century fantasy and horror to extensive coverage of some of the best books in the contemporary field. Offering a wide-ranging discussion and penetrating comparative analysis, Rhetorics of Fantasy will excite fans and provide a wealth of material for scholarly and classroom discussion. (cited from amazon.com)

Alexei & Cory Panshin, The World Beyond the Hill: Science Fiction and the Quest for Transcendence (1989) ◎◎◎◎
The authors set out to trace a history of SF as a modern myth of transcendence, from the end of witchcraft trials in England in 1685 through the publication of Asimov's "The Mule" in 1945. They provide little scholarship on myth or intellectual history, citing only Joseph Campbell and two books on Sufism in a tiny bibliography; no secondary sources are indexed. But if their scholarly thesis is finally weak and unconvincing, their contribution to the history of "golden age" SF is invaluable. Fully two thirds of this huge book is virtually a story-by-story analysis of the development of modern magazine SF, mostly through John W. Campbell's editorship of Astounding. The Panshins discuss the stories in almost obsessive detail, showing Campbell's role in working with authors Heinlein, Asimov, van Vogt, and Williamson. But as a general history, this is far less complete than Aldiss & Wingrove, and is often eccentric and provincial in its judgements. As a microhistorical portrait of a key period in SF's development, it is quite useful. (p. 577)

David Seed, A Companion to Science Fiction (2005) ◎◎◎◎○
“[This] Companion provides unusual depth and detail … The main strengths here are the distinguished roster of contributors, who have plenty of thought-provoking ideas … Anyone seeking an immersion course in the history and criticism of [science fiction] today will find that their time is well repaid.” -- from Science Fiction Studies (cited from amazon.com)

Lawrence Sutin, Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick (1989, 2005) ◎◎◎◎
The troubled, turbulent nature of Dick's life and its clear importance to his later fiction has provoked several biographical studies. The best of these is Sutin's, which weaves a compelling, compassionate account of Dick and those who knew him with a narrative of his intellectual life and evolving fictional concerns. Sutin concludes with a very useful "Chronological Survey and Guide," which annotates and rates (on a scale from 1 to 10) every book Dick wrote. (p. 639)

Jeff VanderMeer, Wonderbook: The Illustrated Guide to Create Imaginative Fiction  (2013) ◎◎◎◎○
This all-new definitive guide to writing imaginative fiction takes a completely novel approach and fully exploits the visual nature of fantasy through original drawings, maps, renderings, and exercises to create a spectacularly beautiful and inspiring object. Employing an accessible, example-rich approach, Wonderbook energizes and motivates while also providing practical, nuts-and-bolts information needed to improve as a writer. Aimed at aspiring and intermediate-level writers, Wonderbook includes helpful sidebars and essays from some of the biggest names in fantasy today, such as George R. R. Martin, Lev Grossman, Neil Gaiman, Michael Moorcock, Catherynne M. Valente, and Karen Joy Fowler, to name a few. (cited from amazon.com)

Gary Westfahl, The Mechanics of Wonder: The Creation of the Idea of Science Fiction (1998) ◎◎◎◎○
My Response: Is There a 'True History' of Science Fiction?
One of the most broadly polemical of this prolific author's several studies of aspects of science fiction history sets out to demonstrate that Hugo Gernsback not only created almost single-handedly the notion of science fiction as a genre, but that his various editorials and commentaries in Amazing Stories constituted a coherent and consistent literary theory of paramount importance to modern literature. He develops this notion after castigating many prior historians and critics who find the genre's origins in the 19th century or earlier, or who award what he sees as undue credit to later editors, particularly John W. Campbell, Jr. While his argument that a genre does not truly exist until authors see themselves writing it is necessary to his central thesis, it constitutes a rather unusual view of genre theory, and Westfahl's own efforts at developing a definition of science fiction late in the book are often fuzzy. Nevertheless, as with all Westfahl's studies, his detailed attention to the minutiae of the pulp era lends the volume particular interest to historians and strives to validate many commonly held beliefs among fans. (p. 595-6)

Gary K. Wolfe, Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship (1986) ◎◎◎◎○
A valuable introduction traces the historical development of fantasy and SF critical discourse. Approximately three-fourths of the book is composed of a glossary of almost 500 terms and concepts, ranging from brief definitions to short essays, keyed to a secondary bibliography and to authors of cited fiction. Clear, concise, and most welcome, it's current enough to include trendy terms such as cyberpunk and postmodern. ...... (p. 513)


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